OctoberInternational Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. CVII. Structure and Pharmacology of the Apelin Receptor with a Recommendation that Elabela Is a Second Endogenous Peptide Ligand.PHARMACOLOGY REVIEWAn extensive review on the ELABELA-ergic pathway summarizing most of current knowledge.
 JuneThe apelinergic-axis in human preeclamptic pregnancies: A systematic review.PREGNANCY
A meta-analysis of all publications examining the role and levels of circulating ELABELA in normotensive and hypertensive pregnancies.
 JulyReducing maternal mortality: can elabela help in this fight?LANCETAn opinion about the therapeutic potential of ELABELA is pregnancy-related diseases.


 JuneELABELA deficiency promotes preeclampsia and cardiovascular malformations in mice SCIENCELoss of ELABELA, a placental hormone, triggers preeclampsia with hypertension, proteinuria, and IUGR. This can be corrected by infusion of synthetic ELA. 
ELA knockout mice embryos have severe but incompletely penetrant cardiovascular defects.
 JuneStructural Basis for Apelin Control of the Human Apelin ReceptorSTRUCTUREThe crystal structure of APLNR in complex with an APELIN mimetic agonist is revealed. Endogenous peptide ligands of APLNR such as ELA may have a high degree of conformational flexibility to modulate receptor activation via a two site binding mechanism.


AprilThe Apelin receptor enhances Nodal/TGFbeta signaling to ensure proper cardiac development eLIFELoss of Aplnr in zebrafish dampens Nodal/Tgfbeta signalling during mesendoderm development.
Elevating Nodal is sufficient to rescue heart development in Aplnr mutant embryos.


Discovery and Structure-Activity Relationship of a Bioactive Fragment of ELABELA that Modulates Vascular and Cardiac FunctionsJOURNAL OF MEDICINAL
This is the first report of an analogue of  ELA consisting its the last carboxy 13 residues. This C-terminal fragment is shown to be  critical for binding to APLNR and downstream signalling.
When administered to rats 
this analogue displays potent inotropic and hypotensive 
properties. This highlights the potential therapeutic use of ELA for managing cardiovascular diseases.  



ELABELA Is an Endogenous Growth Factor that Sustains hESC Self-Renewal Via the PI3K/AKT PathwayCELL STEM CELL
ELABELA is an endogenous pro-survival growth factor secreted by hESCs. It is required for self-renewal and maintenance of pluripotency. It signals in a paracrine manner, independently of APLNR, via the PI3K/AKT pathway.  


ELABELA Regulates Fluid Homeostasis by Binding to the APJ Receptor
to Activate Gi Signaling

JOURNAL BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRYELABELA is co-expressed with APLNR in adult kidney where it may control fluid homoeostasis. Injection of synthetic ELA is sufficient to increases diuresis and water intake in rats.

  JuneAn Elabela RNA-Containing Negative Feedback Loop Regulates p53-Mediated  Apoptosis 
in Embryonic Stem Cells
CELL STEM CELLIn murine ES cells, the Elabela mRNA inhibits the activity of Hnrnpl via direct binding. This Ela non-coding function serves to increase Tp53-mediated damaged-induced apoptosis.  

  MayThe hormonal peptide Elabela guides angioblasts to the midline during vasculogenesis eLIFEIn zebrafish, Elabela and Apelin expressed in the midline guide Aplnra/b-expressing angioblasts for proper vasculogenesis.



ELABELA (Toddler): An Embryonic Signal That Promotes Cell Movement via Apelin Receptors
 SCIENCE Independent confirmation of ELABELA's identity, knockout and activity on Aplnr receptors in zebrafish


 ELABELA: A Hormone Essential for Heart Development
Signals via the Apelin Receptor
 DEVELOPMENTAL CELL      Discovery of the hormone ELABELA, its loss-of-function phenotype in zebrafish and its cognate receptor APLNR.



Expression of two novel transcripts in the mouse definitive endoderm GENE EXPRESSION PATTERN Spatial and temporal expression of ELABELA transcripts in mouse embryos



The G Protein-Coupled Receptor Agtrl1b Regulates Early Development of Myocardial Progenitors  DEVELOPMENTAL CELL Aplnrb mutation in zebrafish phenocopies loss of ELABELA
  March Apelin and Its Receptor Control Heart Field Formation during Zebrafish Gastrulation  DEVELOPMENTAL CELL Aplnr depletion in zebrafish phenocopies loss of ELABELA